In pre-western contact Hawai‘i, all ‘āina, kai lawai‘a, and natural resources extending from the mountaintops to the depths of the ocean were held in “trust” by the high chiefs—mō‘ī, ali‘i ‘ai moku, or ali‘i ‘ai ahupua‘a. The right to use plots of land, fisheries, and natural resources was given to the hoa‘āina at the prerogative of the ali‘i and their representatives or land agents, often referred to as konohiki or haku ‘aina.
Missionaries came to Hawai‘i starting in the 1820s and impacted Honouliuli in several ways. In addition to preaching Christian values to the native Hawaiians, they built churches and schools in the areas and played an integral role in the shift to a more westernized culture in the islands. The narratives in the Missionaries category consist mostly of missionary publications.
The article below, published in 1901, is entitled “Dedication of Puuloa Church.” Following the fashion of the day, the article carried several subtitles, including “Does not owe a cent,” “Puuloa Church is dedicated to God,” “Contributions were generous,” and “A deficit of $170 raised before the consecration—Liliuokalani present.” The money raised for the construction of the church was short because it turned out to cost more than expected. Some dignitaries were present at the dedication, whose generous donations were able to cover the extra cost.
The mission station of Honolulu began establishing schools around the islands. These schools were situated wherever a community existed that could support the endeavor. The instruction focused on religious and general courses. Nearly every ahupua‘a had at least one school, and in some instances several schools at various locations within an ahupua‘a were established. By 1850, operation of the schools had transferred from the mission station to the government, and a minister of public education oversaw the development of the schools.
In 1839, E. O. Hall and a group from the mission in Honolulu traveled around the island of O‘ahu visiting various localities. His notes from the journey were published in Volume II, No. I of the Hawaiian Spectator under the title of “Notes of a Tour around Oahu” (1839). Hall’s narratives include descriptions of places visited and changes in agricultural endeavors and living conditions, with notes from Honouliuli Ahupua‘a and neighboring lands.
The newspaper Ke Kumu Hawaii was one of the earliest missionary publications. It provided for public education various facets of Hawai‘i’s “progress” in being westernized. The paper included articles by foreign missionaries and Hawaiian leaders in the mission station. The article below, entitled “No Keia Pae Aina. No Ka Helu Ana o Kanaka,” detailed population statistics from the ‘Ewa District for 1835. The tables below, also from the article, gives population counts for the people of ‘Ewa and Wai‘anae.