Thelma Genevieve Parish, a.k.a. Sister Parish, was born in 1918. She descended from prominent families in the history of Hawai‘i, and shared generational ties to the ‘ili of Pu‘uloa in Honouliuli Ahupua‘a. She was educated as an anthropologist, and became a Catholic nun serving for 50 years as a teacher and school administrator with the Order of Sacred Hearts. Sister Parish was a lifelong student of history and until her passing in 2004, she was working on a manuscript of Hawaiian history. Unfortunately her work has been left incomplete.
Pukui; Mary Kawena
John Papa ‘Ī‘ī, one of the preeminent native Hawaiian historians, was born at Kumelewai, Waipi‘o in ‘Ewa in 1800. Raised as an attendant to the Kamehameha heirs, he was privy to many facets of early history, practices, and events during his life. In the 1860s, ‘Ī‘ī published a history under the title Na Hunahuna o ka Moolelo Hawaii that was translated by Mary Kawena Pukui and published as Fragments of Hawaiian History . Based on the translations, Paul Rockwood produced a map of the trail routes and several locations identified by ‘Ī‘ī in his narratives.
One of the native Hawaiian informants who recorded her recollections of the Honouliuli area was Hawaiian ethnographer and Bishop Museum employee Mary Kawena Pukui. Pukui shared her personal experience with the ghosts on the plain of Kaupe‘a around 1910:
In 1870, native historian S. M. Kamakau wrote about several practices and beliefs pertaining to manō, sharks, in ancient life. One practice of note in the Pu‘uloa region was the practice of transforming deceased family members into manō as ‘aumakua. These family ‘aumakua would help relatives when in danger on the sea—if a canoe capsized or a man-eating shark was threatening attack.
Native historian Samuel M. Kamakau compiled and published a history of Kamehameha I, which was translated by Mary Kawena Pukui. In doing so, he reviewed various aspects of Hawaiian history leading up to the time of Kamehameha and touched upon the history of a chief by the name of Kuāli‘i who was the king of O‘ahu and later unified all the islands under his rule. Tradition says that Kuāli‘i lived for 175 years, and he was succeeded in rule by his son, Pele-iō-Hōlani in ca. 1730.